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ACL Injuries : Diagnosis, and Reconstructive Surgery

What is the ACL?

ACL is the abbreviation for the Anterior Cruciate Ligament.

This is one of the major ligaments of the knee. It connects the thigh bone (femur) to the leg bone (tibia) and strentgens


Why are ACL injuries so common?

The knee is particularly vulnerable to injury.

It is the joint between the two longest bones of the body, and the entire weight of the body is transferred to the foot through the knee. Its particularly vulnerable to injury during athletic activity or as the result of falls

What are the signs and symptoms of an ACL injury?

A twist or strain has occurred which causes the following signs:

  • “Pop” – Many patients, but not all, will hear or feel a “pop” when their ACL tears.
  • swelling – This is an indication that there is bleeding from the injured ligament.
  • Pain – Most patients experience quite a bit of pain with an ACL injury.
  • Instability –a buckling or unstable sensation in the knee immediately or later

How is an ACL injury diagnosed?

Your sports and shoulder surgeon Dr Anoop Mohan Nair will want to know the history of the knee injury and will determine if the signs and symptoms of an ACL injury are present.

After taking a history, the orthopedic surgeon will perform a physical examination. The doctor will perform manual tests on the knee to determine the amount of instability that exists. The Lachman Test, Anterior Drawer Test, and Pivot Shift Test are exams the doctor may use to see how much the tibia moves in relation to the femur.

Pain, swelling, and muscle spasms in the early stages of an injury may make it difficult for the doctor to diagnose the degree of instability with manual tests. X-rays can reveal signs of bone fractures, chips, or arthritis. Since X-rays can only show bone, a Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) may be ordered to assess damage to soft tissue such as ligaments, tendons, and cartilage. An MRI is a non-operative procedure that allows the surgeon to determine the amount of damage to the ACL and any other structures of the knee.

If further testing is needed to clearly evaluate the problem, an arthroscopy may be recommended. During an arthroscopy, a tiny fiberoptic scope is inserted into the joint. The doctor uses this scope to visually assess the damage. In most cases, a diagnosis can be made without using this surgical procedure.

How is an ACL injury treated?

In the acute/early phase i.e. on the day of sustaining injury RICE:

  • Rest the knee by using crutches and keeping weight off of it
  • Ice the knee
  • Compress the knee with a wrap
  • Elevate the leg

These measures will help control swelling. Dr Nair sometimes drains the joint of excess fluid to reduce pressure and pain. After the initial injury symptoms have subsided and the diagnosis has been established, he will look at the history of the injury and the patient’s activity level to determine what treatment is best for the patient.

Why treat ACL tears?

Proper diagnosis and treatment of ACL injuries helps in avoiding complications, contuing with sports and leisure activities more confidence in your knees and preventing future arthritis.

Why chose Health Point for ACL/Knee injury?

At health Point we have

  • high definition monitors and high resolution cameras
  • state of the art shaver systems.
  • the best arthroscopes and micro instruments.
  • 3 ultra modern laminar flow operation theatres with zero bacteria environment

At Health Point Ranchi, Dr Anoop Mohan Nair our Sports Medicine and Shoulder Surgeon specializes in the Anatomic Footprint minimally invasive technique to repair a torn ACL. It is done arthroscopically and does not involve cutting open the knee like traditional surgery.He has over 10 0years of experience in such surgeries and has performed more than 650 arthroscopic surgeries

Torn ACL


Repaired ACL


Surgeon Profile


Dr Anoop Mohan Nair

MBBS, MS(Orthopedics) ,MRCS(Glasgow), FAPOA(Singapore)

Fellowship trained in Joint Surgeries of Hip ,Knee and Shoulder

More than 10yrs experience in replacement and arthroscopic procedures

Member RCS(Scotland)

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What is arthroscopy?


arthroscopy is keyhole surgery of the knee,shoulder elbow etc.It is normally performed through 2 or 3 small holes at the front of the knee. Most arthroscopies are done as a day case, out-patient procedure. During arthroscopy, various procedures can be performed, such as surgery for shoulder dislocation, cartilage trimming, ACL reconstruction, loose body removal or repair etc etc

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